Features of lung ultrasound in COVID 19 infection

Literature is coming out on the lung ultrasonography of novel coronavirus. This is a summary of the literature so far The features of lung ultrasound are not specific for COVID 19 pneumonitis or pneumonia but highly suggestive in patients presenting with a history suggestive of  infection with novel coronavirus Lung ultrasound is strongly recommended  for Read more about Features of lung ultrasound in COVID 19 infection[…]

Causes of Aortic Stenosis

Written by Kathryn Statham Aortic stenosis It is the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries It’s prevalence is increasing with the our ageing population It is found in 3% of patients > 75 yrs It is the most common valve disease requiring surgical intervention in developed countries. TAVI is increasingly the treatment of Read more about Causes of Aortic Stenosis[…]

Assessment of aortic regurgitation

Kathryn Statham, Genevieve Carbonatto AR is rarely physiological. If it is present then a cause needs to be found. ECHO is used to determine Aetiology Estimate  severity Assess chronicity This is done first by imaging the heart with 2D echo and looking at: valves aortic root size LV cavity size (chronic vs acute) LV wall Read more about Assessment of aortic regurgitation[…]

3. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Congenitally abnormal valves

Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto Congenitally abnormal valves Bicuspid Unicuspid Quadricuspid   Bicuspid valves (BAV) have been classified in many different ways. An easy classification  looks at  the number of cusps, the presence of raphes and the position and symmetry of cusps. A raphe refers to a conjoined area of two underdeveloped leaflets turning into Read more about 3. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Congenitally abnormal valves[…]

2. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Aortic root dilatation and Loss of commissural support

Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto 1. Aortic root dilatation loss of leaflet coaptation hypertension connective tissue disorders (Marfans etc) 2. Loss of commissural support Aortic dissection VSD Aortic trauma   Aortic root dilatation Aortic root dilatation can cause loss of leaflet coaptation as in the clips below Loss of commissural support Loss of commissural support Read more about 2. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Aortic root dilatation and Loss of commissural support[…]

1. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Valve destruction and degeneration

  Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto Valve destruction and degeneration sclerosis/stenosis infective endocarditis rheumatic heart disease aortic valve prolapse.   1. Valve sclerosis / stenosis 2 -3 % of people will develop  severe AS after the age of 75. If the  leaflets become thick and calcified they are poorly mobile causing them to close incompletely Read more about 1. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Valve destruction and degeneration[…]

Causes of Aortic regurgitation: Summary

Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto Epidemiology The prevalence of chronic AR is 5 -10% (mainly mild AR) The prevalence of moderate to severe AR 0.5 – 2.7% AR increases with age It peaks in the 4th to 6th decade of life It is more common in men than in women A formal ECHO evaluation is Read more about Causes of Aortic regurgitation: Summary[…]

Aortopathy – Aortic root dilatation

Images Ava Ghalini text Genevieve Carbonatto A patient is referred by his GP to the Emergency Department for episodes of exertional upper chest pain over a period of 2 weeks. A troponin organised by his GP was 28. On arrival he is asymptomatic. BP 180/80, HR 100/min. A systolic and loud diastolic murmur is audible Read more about Aortopathy – Aortic root dilatation[…]

Ruptured ectopic, pseudosac

Images Bashir Chakar, text Genevieve Carbonatto A 36 year old lady presents with sudden onset of  right lower quadrant pain lasting 20 minutes. One hour later she experiences further abdominal pain prompting her presentation to the Emergency Department.  She has had 2 positive home pregnancy tests. On examination she is minimally tender in her right Read more about Ruptured ectopic, pseudosac[…]