Features of lung ultrasound in COVID 19 infection

Literature is coming out on the lung ultrasonography of novel coronavirus. This is a summary of the literature so far The features of lung ultrasound are not specific for COVID 19 pneumonitis or pneumonia but highly suggestive in patients presenting with a history suggestive of  infection with novel coronavirus Lung ultrasound is strongly recommended  for Read more about Features of lung ultrasound in COVID 19 infection[…]

Causes of Aortic Stenosis

Written by Kathryn Statham Aortic stenosis It is the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries It’s prevalence is increasing with the our ageing population It is found in 3% of patients > 75 yrs It is the most common valve disease requiring surgical intervention in developed countries. TAVI is increasingly the treatment of Read more about Causes of Aortic Stenosis[…]

Assessment of aortic regurgitation

Kathryn Statham, Genevieve Carbonatto AR is rarely physiological. If it is present then a cause needs to be found. ECHO is used to determine Aetiology Estimate  severity Assess chronicity This is done first by imaging the heart with 2D echo and looking at: valves aortic root size LV cavity size (chronic vs acute) LV wall Read more about Assessment of aortic regurgitation[…]

Aortopathy – Aortic root dilatation

Images Ava Ghalini text Genevieve Carbonatto A patient is referred by his GP to the Emergency Department for episodes of exertional upper chest pain over a period of 2 weeks. A troponin organised by his GP was 28. On arrival he is asymptomatic. BP 180/80, HR 100/min. A systolic and loud diastolic murmur is audible Read more about Aortopathy – Aortic root dilatation[…]

Ruptured ectopic, pseudosac

Images Bashir Chakar, text Genevieve Carbonatto A 36 year old lady presents with sudden onset of  right lower quadrant pain lasting 20 minutes. One hour later she experiences further abdominal pain prompting her presentation to the Emergency Department.  She has had 2 positive home pregnancy tests. On examination she is minimally tender in her right Read more about Ruptured ectopic, pseudosac[…]

Heterotopic pregnancy

Images Evy Panos, Text Genevieve Carbonatto A 32 year old lady presents by ambulance  to the Emergency Department in shock. She describes having felt dizzy but not unwell and then suddenly collapsed. She remembers being escorted in a wheelchair into an  ambulance. She is 19 weeks pregnant and has had a recent normal ultrasound scan. Read more about Heterotopic pregnancy[…]

Hydronephrosis and aberrant renal artery

Images Evy Panos A 32 year old man presents with right loin pain after a drinking binge. His friends have urged him to attend the Emergency Department because he always complains of  right loin pain after drinking in their company and they would like him to get to the bottom of it. He describes having Read more about Hydronephrosis and aberrant renal artery[…]

Pulmonary Embolism – Right ventricular thrombus

Images Nick Stewart text Genevieve Carbonatto A 22 year old patient presents to the Emergency Department with calf pain. On further questioning she has had  a presyncopal event the day of presentation and complains of shortness of breath. She has recently been put on tranexamic acid for heavy menstrual bleeding. She is also on the Read more about Pulmonary Embolism – Right ventricular thrombus[…]

Cardiac tumour

Images Roger Burrell Text Genevieve Carbonatto A 60 year old man presented to the Emergency Department short of breath having a  known right ventricular cardiac tumour with metastases to the lung, liver, spleen and bone. On examination saturating 100% on RA, bilateral pitting pedal oedema, BP, 120/60, HR 68/min. An ECHO was performed in the Read more about Cardiac tumour[…]

Echocardiography during cardiac arrest

Text Genevieve Carbonatto The management of cardiac arrest has been intensively studied over the past 20 year and other than early and good quality CPR and early defibrillation in VF, very little has shown to improve the prognosis in cardiac arrest. The last 20 years has shown that high dose adrenaline, vasopressin, supplementary oxygen, treatment Read more about Echocardiography during cardiac arrest[…]