Mitral valve anatomy

Text Genevieve Carbonatto The mitral valve apparatus consists of the  left atrial wall annulus 2 leaflets chordae tendinae papaillarymuscles left ventricular wall The MV has 2 leaflets, the anterior and posterior leaflets The anterior leaflet is Larger and thicker than the posterior leaflet Attached to the anterior mitral annulus which is in continuity with the Read more about Mitral valve anatomy[…]

Lung Ultrasound findings in COVID 19

Text Genevieve Carbonatto Specific examination ultrasound findings in COVID 19 are not unique to the disease. Lung findings include  pleural line irregularities, pleural thickening, B lines and consolidations. What is striking is the remarkably similar  distribution of lung  pathology from patient to patient. The posterolateral areas are generally affected first bilaterally and then the disease Read more about Lung Ultrasound findings in COVID 19[…]

1. Assessment of Severity of AS : 2D assessments

Kathryn Statham The ECHO features of aortic stenosis can be explained through the  natural history and the pathophysiology of the disease. Degenerative calcific AS is a progressive valvular disease. It is characterised by A long latent period when the patient is asymptomatic despite progressive obstruction of the valve Once symptoms occur, there is a rapid Read more about 1. Assessment of Severity of AS : 2D assessments[…]

2. Assessment of Severity of AS : Quantitative assessment

Kathryn Statham Quantitative Assessment of AS Peak AV jet velocity (m/sec) Mean AV gradient (mmHg) Valve area by continuity equation (cm2) Dimensionless severity index (dimensionless) 1. Pressure Gradients  Stenosis results in a pressure gradient. The pressure gradient is high before an obstruction and low distal to the obstruction. The greater the stenosis the greater the Read more about 2. Assessment of Severity of AS : Quantitative assessment[…]

Features of lung ultrasound in COVID 19 infection

Text Genevieve Carbonatto Literature is coming out on the lung ultrasonography of novel coronavirus. This is a summary of the literature so far The features of lung ultrasound are not specific for COVID 19 pneumonitis or pneumonia but highly suggestive in patients presenting with a history suggestive of  infection with novel coronavirus Lung ultrasound is Read more about Features of lung ultrasound in COVID 19 infection[…]

Causes of Aortic Stenosis

Kathryn Statham Aortic stenosis It is the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries It’s prevalence is increasing with our ageing population It is found in 3% of patients > 75 yrs It is the most common valve disease requiring surgical intervention in developed countries. TAVI is increasingly the treatment of choice for severe Read more about Causes of Aortic Stenosis[…]

Assessment of aortic regurgitation

Kathryn Statham, Genevieve Carbonatto AR is rarely physiological. If it is present then a cause needs to be found. ECHO is used to determine Aetiology Estimate  severity Assess chronicity This is done first by imaging the heart with 2D echo and looking at: valves aortic root size LV cavity size (chronic vs acute) LV wall Read more about Assessment of aortic regurgitation[…]

3. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Congenitally abnormal valves

Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto Congenitally abnormal valves Bicuspid Unicuspid Quadricuspid   Bicuspid valves (BAV) have been classified in many different ways. An easy classification  looks at  the number of cusps, the presence of raphes and the position and symmetry of cusps. A raphe refers to a conjoined area of two underdeveloped leaflets turning into Read more about 3. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Congenitally abnormal valves[…]

2. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Aortic root dilatation and Loss of commissural support

Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto 1. Aortic root dilatation loss of leaflet coaptation hypertension connective tissue disorders (Marfans etc) 2. Loss of commissural support Aortic dissection VSD Aortic trauma   Aortic root dilatation Aortic root dilatation can cause loss of leaflet coaptation as in the clips below Loss of commissural support Loss of commissural support Read more about 2. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Aortic root dilatation and Loss of commissural support[…]

1. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Valve destruction and degeneration

  Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto Valve destruction and degeneration sclerosis/stenosis infective endocarditis rheumatic heart disease aortic valve prolapse.   1. Valve sclerosis / stenosis 2 -3 % of people will develop  severe AS after the age of 75. If the  leaflets become thick and calcified they are poorly mobile causing them to close incompletely Read more about 1. Causes of Aortic regurgitation : Valve destruction and degeneration[…]