Causes of Aortic regurgitation: Summary

Kathryn Statham , Genevieve Carbonatto

Epidemiology

  • The prevalence of chronic AR is 5 -10% (mainly mild AR)
  • The prevalence of moderate to severe AR 0.5 – 2.7%
  • AR increases with age
  • It peaks in the 4th to 6th decade of life
  • It is more common in men than in women
  • A formal ECHO evaluation is important for prognosis and management
  • In the Emergency setting ECHO evaluation of AR is principally about assessing severity and acuity

Causes of AR

1. Valve destruction/degeneration  

  • sclerosis/stenosis
  • infective endocarditis
  • rheumatic heart disease
  • aortic valve prolapse.

2. Aortic root dilatation. 

  • loss of leaflet coaptation
  • hypertension
  • connective tissue disorders (Marfans etc)

3. Congenitally abnormal valve

  • bicuspid
  • Unicuspid
  • quadricuspid

4. Loss of commissural support

  • Aortic dissection
  • VSDs
  • aortic trauma

 

 

 

 

 

 

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